Timeline Edit Test One: Olympic Games

From the start of the modern Olympic games in 1896, the International Olympic Committee avoided overt links with commercial interests. No advertising was allowed in or around the stadium. Taking advantage of the first Olympics to allow concessions, Coca-Cola set up a kiosk at the 1928 Amsterdam Games. Six waiters introduced the product to unfamiliar customers. 

1928 Olympic Games Coca-Cola Kiosk Courtesy of the Coca-Cola Corporation

1928 Olympic Games Coca-Cola Kiosk
Courtesy of the Coca-Cola Corporation

A pre-Olympics publicity event featured in the 1932 Tournament of Roses Courtesy of The Security Pacific National Bank Collection, Los Angeles Public Library

A pre-Olympics publicity event featured in the 1932 Tournament of Roses
Courtesy of The Security Pacific National Bank Collection, Los Angeles Public Library

Participant in the 1932 Olympic Games Courtesy of The Security Pacific National Bank Collection, Los Angeles Public Library

Participant in the 1932 Olympic Games
Courtesy of The Security Pacific National Bank Collection, Los Angeles Public Library

To generate revenue in 1932, the Los Angeles organizers hatched a plan to sell the modest athlete bungalows to domestic and international buyers after the games' conclusion. The structures became guest homes, cottages, and vacation retreats. 

An Olympic Village bungalow on display, the first Olympic Village in history. Courtesy of The Security Pacific National Bank Collection, Los Angeles Public Library

An Olympic Village bungalow on display, the first Olympic Village in history.
Courtesy of The Security Pacific National Bank Collection, Los Angeles Public Library

In 1932, an industrious Los Angeles baker secured the sole contract to supply bread products to the Games. Not only did he get permission, he also secured the copyrights to use Olympic symbols in advertising. This was the first attempt to copyright these symbols.

Helms Bakeries, bakers of Helms Olympic Bread, Los Angeles, California, 1940 Courtesy of Loyola Marymount University, Department of Archives and Special Collections, William H. Hannon Library

Helms Bakeries, bakers of Helms Olympic Bread, Los Angeles, California, 1940
Courtesy of Loyola Marymount University, Department of Archives and Special Collections, William H. Hannon Library

He was persuaded by Avery Brundage, head of the IOC, to surrender his copyrights in 1950. Generously, he complied, yet the surviving sign bearing the Olympic association still stands.

Surving Helms Bakery Sign Courtesy of The Helms Bakery District

Surving Helms Bakery Sign
Courtesy of The Helms Bakery District

From 1952 to 1972, Brundage rejected all attempts to brand Olympic events. Upon his death, the IOC became proudly pro-sponsorship and saw its coffers swell. McDonald's began its first Olympic Sponsorship in 1976, which continues to this day.


Commercial for McDonald's 1984 "When the U.S. Wins, You Win" Promotion

In 1984, the corporation was taken by surprise when Russian athletes boycotted the games. Committed to a promotion that rewarded consumers with products when the U.S. won medals, McDonald's ended up giving out millions more fries, drinks, and Big Macs than it had ever anticipated. Still, that didn’t dent a partnership that perseveres—a stalwart among the corporate logos that are now ubiquitous.


Timeline Edit Test Two: RNC

 

View of the 1968 Republican National Convention in Miami Beach, Florida. 1968 State Archives of Florida

View of the 1968 Republican National Convention in Miami Beach, Florida. 1968
State Archives of Florida

 

 

 

On Monday, the New York Times reported that Donald Trump sees his presidential campaign and this week’s Republican National Convention as the unlikely heir to Richard Nixon’s 1968 convention in Miami Beach. (Not the only thing the Trumps “borrowed” this week.)

Like Nixon, Trump faces an electorate that’s fearful of terrorism and divided by deep racial and economic strife. And, as in Nixon's year, the mood at the RNC in Cleveland is tense. Yet, it’s worth remembering that not everything was doom and gloom back in ‘68. Despite the protests and fearmongering, attendees then still managed to make the proceedings feel like a party. That's something Trump may not be able to copy so easily.

Go-Go girl with celebrating delegates Photographer: Lynn Pelham, Getty Images / Life Pictures Collection

Go-Go girl with celebrating delegates
Photographer: Lynn Pelham, Getty Images / Life Pictures Collection

Convention-goers and elephant Photographer: Mel Finkelstein / New York Daily News Archive

Convention-goers and elephant
Photographer: Mel Finkelstein / New York Daily News Archive

Nixon supporter wearing political glasses State Archives of Florida

Nixon supporter wearing political glasses
State Archives of Florida

1968 Republican National Convention Photographer: Paul Slade, Getty Images / Paris Match Archive

1968 Republican National Convention
Photographer: Paul Slade, Getty Images / Paris Match Archive


Timeline Edit Test Three: European Terrorism

The body of Aldo Moro was found in the back of a vehicle near his party headquarters in Rome in 1978.  Photographer: Gianni Giansanti / Associated Press

The body of Aldo Moro was found in the back of a vehicle near his party headquarters in Rome in 1978. 
Photographer: Gianni Giansanti / Associated Press

From the Bataclan massacre and Charlie Hebdo shootings in Paris, to the suicide bombings in Brussels, to the devastating truck attack in Nice, ISIS and its followers have terrorized Europe.

Guardian (UK) newspaper from 5/10/78

Guardian (UK) newspaper from 5/10/78

The unremitting violence recalls the 1970’s-era Red Brigades, a left-wing paramilitary group that menaced Italy. Modeled partly on Latin American guerillas, the Red Brigades sought to turn the country into a “revolutionary state” and force it out of NATO. Before the group’s gradual dissolution in the late ‘80’s, it killed more than 75 people, committed more than 14,000 acts of violence, and was responsible for untold numbers of kidnappings and robberies. In 1978, the group famously kidnapped and murdered former Italian Prime Minister Aldo Moro.

 

In 1981, members of the Red Brigades kidnapped Brig. Gen. James L. Dozier, the highest-ranking U.S. Army official in southern Europe, from his home in Verona, Italy. AP

In 1981, members of the Red Brigades kidnapped Brig. Gen. James L. Dozier, the highest-ranking U.S. Army official in southern Europe, from his home in Verona, Italy. AP

Red Brigade manifestoes are brought to auction in Italy, 2012 Photographer: Giuseppe Cacace / Getty Images

Red Brigade manifestoes are brought to auction in Italy, 2012
Photographer: Giuseppe Cacace / Getty Images

While the RB and ISIS have different purposes and ideologies, both groups waged terror on Europe. Both used propaganda and press to spread their message. These images are reminders of the cyclical and chilling violence of groups driven by single-minded ideological obsession.

Assassination Of Police Superintendent Berardi Rosario By The Red Brigades, 1978 Photographer: Gery Gerard, Paris Match Archive / Getty Images

Assassination Of Police Superintendent Berardi Rosario By The Red Brigades, 1978
Photographer: Gery Gerard, Paris Match Archive / Getty Images

Trial Of 49 Accused Red Brigades, 1978 Photographer: Gery Gerard, Paris Match Archive / Getty Images

Trial Of 49 Accused Red Brigades, 1978
Photographer: Gery Gerard, Paris Match Archive / Getty Images